Thursday, December 15, 2016

Marketing: 
The management process through which goods and services move from concept to the customer. It includes the coordination of four elements called the 4 P's of marketing:
(1) identification, selection and development of a product,

(2) determination of its price,

(3) selection of a distribution channel to reach the customer's place, and

(4) development and implementation of a promotional strategy.

For example, new Apple products are developed to include improved applications and systems, are set at different prices depending on how much capability the customer desires, and are sold in places where other Apple products are sold.

Sunday, December 1, 2013

WHAT A MANAGER DOES?

ROLES OF A MANAGER


– Achieve objectives through and with people

– Identify and utilise resources – Optimum

– Plan, Analyse, Interpret, colloborate

– educate, problem solver

– communicator, build team

– change agent, chief executive

  1. FIGUREHEAD:  The Manager performs ceremonial and symbolic duties as head of the organisation;
  2. LEADER: Fosters a proper work atmosphere and motivates and develops subordinates;
  3. LIASION: Develops and maintains a network of external contacts to gather information;
  4. MONITOR: Gathers internal and external information relevant to the organisation;
  5. DISSEMINATOR: Transmits factual and value based information to subordinates;
  6. SPOKESPERSON: Communicates to the outside world on performance and policies.
  7. ENTREPRENEUR: Designs and initiates change in the organisation;
  8. DISTURBANCE HANDLER: Deals with unexpected events and operational breakdowns;
  9. RESOURCE ALLOCATOR: Controls and authorises the use of organisational resources;
  10. NEGOTIATOR: Participates in negotiation activities with other organisations and individuals.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT

1. Management as a continuous process:
Management can be considered as a process because it consists of planning, organizing, activating and controlling the resources (personnel and capital) of an organization. So they are used to the best advantage in achieving the objectives of the organization.
None of the managerial functions would produce the ultimate results in the absence of all other basic functions. Hence we can say that management is a continuous process.
2. Management as a discipline:
Since the boundaries of management are not exact as that of any other physical sciences, it may not fit in very well for being addressed as discipline. However its status as a discipline increases because it continuously discovers many aspects of business enterprises and also passes on the verified knowledge to the practitioners of the managerial process.
3. Management as a career:
As a career or occupation, management is a broad concept- Management itself can be regarded as a career, but it also presents a variety of interesting and challenging careers focused on specialized occupations in the fields such as marketing, finance and personnel.
4. Management as an Applied Science:
Even though management is a science so far as it possesses a systematized body of knowledge and uses scientific methods of research, it is not an exact science, like natural sciences which deal with living phenomena such as botany and medicine.
Hence, management is definitely a social science like economics or psychology and has the same institutions which these and other social sciences have.
5. Universal Application:
Management is a universal activity, applied to any form of activity, economic or otherwise.
6. Goal Oriented:
Management has the task of attaining certain objectives. The success or failure of the management depends on how far it is able to attain the desired goals. It is judged by the extent to which it achieves its targets.
7. Guidance:
The main task of the management is guidance in the utilization of material and human resources in the best possible way. Through optimum utilization of resources it has to ensure that the objectives are attained. The essential element of management is that it gets the work done by coordinating the performance of those who actually perform diverse and specific jobs.
8. Divorced from proprietorship:
Management does not signify proprietorship. In earlier days, management and enterprise were lumped into the same factor. It now refers to a specialized group of people who have acquired the ability to carry out a project.
9. An activating factor:
Management is the factor which activates other factors of production. A manager's skill lies in motivating his workers through guidance, training, incentives, rewards, status, security, control, etc. So a mangers' ability lies in the fact that he is able to motivate others to apply their skill to the best advantage of the enterprise in the accomplishment of its objectives.
10. Management is a human activity:
Management functions are discharged only by individuals. No corporate body or an artificial being can perform the work of a management. Although it is an activity which may be performed by an individual it cannot be seen. It can only be felt.
11. Management signifies authority:
Since the essence of management is to direct, guide and control, it has to have authority. Authority is the power to compel others to work and behave in a particular manner. Management cannot discharge its function without authority. It is the foundation of management. Since management has authority it stands at a higher pedestal.
12. Leadership:
The management has to lead a team of workers. It must be capable of inspiring, motivating and winning their confidence.

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT

DEFINITION:
• F.W. Taylor - “Art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done the best and cheepest way”.

• Henry Fayol – “To Manage is to forecast, to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”.

• Peter F.Drucker –”Management is work and as such it has its own skills, its own tools and its own techniques”.

• Koontz -  “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people”.

Objectives of Management

  1. Maximum Results with Minimum Efforts 
  2. Higher Efficiency
  3. Relations with Suppliers
  4. Satisfaction of Customers
  5. Contribution to National Goals
  6. Better Working Conditions
  7. Better Workforce

Importance of Management

• Accomplishment of 
Goals
• Effective Utilisation 
of Resources
• Development of 
Society and Nation
• Harmony in Work 
among employees
• Providing Vision and 
Foresight
• Sound Organisation 
to accomplish 
objectives.
• Help the Employees 
in Achieving Personal 
objectives

  • Administration: Concerned with laying down of 
    corporate policy, obtaining finance, production 
    & distribution.
  • Management: Concerned with actual execution 
    of policies policies within limits set by administration administration..
  • Organization: Combines the work in such a way 
    with individuals/groups that duties formed 
    provide best possible application of available 
    effort

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

The Johari Window



The Johari Window, named after the first names of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. A four paned "window," as illustrated above, divides personal awareness into four different types, as represented by its four quadrants: open, hidden, blind, and unknown. The lines dividing the four panes are like window shades, which can move as an interaction progresses.

In this model, each person is represented by their own window. Let's describe mine:

1. The "open" quadrant represents things that both I know about myself, and that you know about me. For example, I know my name, and so do you, and if you have explored some of my website, you know some of my interests. The knowledge that the window represents, can include not only factual information, but my feelings, motives, behaviors, wants, needs and desires... indeed, any information describing who I am. When I first meet a new person, the size of the opening of this first quadrant is not very large, since there has been little time to exchange information. As the process of getting to know one another continues, the window shades move down or to the right, placing more information into the open window, as described below.

2. The "blind" quadrant represents things that you know about me, but that I am unaware of. So, for example, we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot. If you now tell me that I have something on my face, then the window shade moves to the right, enlarging the open quadrant's area. Now, I may also have blindspots with respect to many other much more complex things. For example, perhaps in our ongoing conversation, you may notice that eye contact seems to be lacking. You may not say anything, since you may not want to embarrass me, or you may draw your own inferences that perhaps I am being insincere. Then the problem is, how can I get this information out in the open, since it may be affecting the level of trust that is developing between us? How can I learn more about myself? Unfortunately, there is no readily available answer. I may notice a slight hesitation on your part, and perhaps this may lead to a question. But who knows if I will pick this up, or if your answer will be on the mark.

3. The "hidden" quadrant represents things that I know about myself, that you do not know. So for example, I have not told you, nor mentioned anywhere on my website, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is. This information is in my "hidden" quadrant. As soon as I tell you that I love "Ben and Jerry's Cherry Garcia" flavored ice cream, I am effectively pulling the window shade down, moving the information in my hidden quadrant and enlarging the open quadrant's area. Again, there are vast amounts of information, virtually my whole life's story, that has yet to be revealed to you. As we get to know and trust each other, I will then feel more comfortable disclosing more intimate details about myself. This process is called: "Self-disclosure."

4. The "unknown" quadrant represents things that neither I know about myself, nor you know about me. For example, I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place. Being placed in new situations often reveal new information not previously known to self or others. For example, I learned of the Johari window at a workshop conducted by a Japanese American psychiatrist in the early 1980's. During this workshop, he created a safe atmosphere of care and trust between the various participants. Usually, I am terrified of speaking in public, but I was surprised to learn that in such an atmosphere, the task need not be so daunting. Prior to this event, I had viewed myself and others had also viewed me as being extremely shy. (The above now reminds me of a funny joke, which I cannot refrain from telling you. It is said that the number one fear that people have is speaking in public. Their number two fear is dying. And the number three fear that people have, is dying while speaking in public.) Thus, a novel situation can trigger new awareness and personal growth. The process of moving previously unknown information into the open quadrant, thus enlarging its area, has been likened to Maslow's concept of self-actualization. The process can also be viewed as a game, where the open quadrant is synonymous with the win-win situation.

Much, much more has been written on the Johari window model of human interaction. The process of enlarging the open quadrant is called self-disclosure, a give and take process between me and the people I interact with. Typically, as I share something about myself (moving information from my hidden quadrant into the open) and if the other party is interested in getting to know me, they will reciprocate, by similarly disclosing information in their hidden quadrant. Thus, an interaction between two parties can be modeled dynamically as two active Johari windows. For example, you may respond to my disclosure that I like "Cherry Garcia" by letting me know what your favorite ice cream is, or where a new ice cream shop is being built, kinds of information in your hidden quadrant. Incidentally, it is fattening, so be careful on how much you eat!

GROUP DYNAMICS

GROUP DYNAMICS:
A. GROUP FORMATION
A group is able to share experiences, to provide feedback, to pool ideas, to generate insights, and provide an arena for analysis of experiences. The group provides a measure of support and reassurance. Moreover, as
a group, learners may also plan collectively for change action. Group discussion is a very effective learning method.

Participation
Participation is a fundamental process within a group, because many of the other processes depend upon participation of the various members. Levels and degrees of participation vary. Some members are active
participants while others are more withdrawn and passive. In essence, participation means involvement, concern for the task, and direct or indirect contribution to the group goal. If members do not participate,
the group ceases to exist. Factors which affect members participation
- The content or task of the group- is it of interest, importance and
relevance?
- The physical atmosphere - is it comfortable physically, socially and psychologically?
- The psychological atmosphere - is it accepting, non-threatening?
- Member’s personal preoccupations - are there any distracting thoughts in their mind?
- The level of interaction and discussions - is adequate information provided for everyone to understand? - is it at a level everyone understands?
- Familiarity - between group members- do members know each other from before?

Communication
Communication within a group deals with the spoken and the unspoken, the verbal and the non-verbal, the explicit and the implied messages that are conveyed and exchanged relating to information and ideas, and
feelings.


Two-way communication implies a situation where not only the two parties talk to each other, but that they are listening to each other as well. It helps in
- Clarification of doubts, confusions and misconceptions
- Both parties understanding each other
- Receiving and giving of feedback
It indicates the degree of respect between the two parties Helpful hints for effective communication
1. Have a circular seating arrangement so that everyone can see and interact with everyone else
2. If there are two facilitators, they should sit apart so that communication flow is not in one direction
3. Respect individuals- let everyone call everyone else by name respectfully
4. Encourage and support the quiet members to voice their opinions
5. Try and persuade the people who speak too much to give others a chance
6. Ensure that only one person speaks at a time or no one else will be heard
7. Discourage sub groups from indulging in side talk

Problem solving:

Most groups find themselves unable to solve problems because they address the problem at a superficial level. After that they find themselves blocked because they cannot figure out why the problem occurred and
how they can tackle it. Therefore an effective problem solving procedure would be to:
1. Clearly define the problem: Is it what appears on the surface or are there deep hidden aspects?
2. Try to thoroughly explore and understand the causes behind the problem
3. Collect additional information, from elsewhere if necessary, and analyze it to understand the problem further
4. The group should suspend criticism and judgment for a while and try to combine each other's ideas or add on improvements. The objectives should be to generate as many ideas and suggestions as possible.
This is called "brainstorming" in a group, when individuals try lateral thinking.

Leadership
Leadership involves focussing the efforts of the people towards a common goal and to enable them to work together as one. In general we designate one individual as a leader. This individual may be chosen from within or appointed from outside. Thus, one member may provide leadership with respect to achieving the goal while a different individual may be providing leadership in maintaining the group as a group. These roles can switch and change.

Transactional Analysis


What is Transactional Analysis
Transactional Analysis (TA) is a personality and psychotherapy for personal growth. It has wide applications in Clinical Psychology, organizations and education also.
Dr.Eric Berne, the originator of TA, considers a transaction as the unit of social intercourse. A transaction consists of a transactional stimulus (TS) and a transactional response (TR). TS is the behavior (verbal or nonverbal) produced by one person in acknowledgement of the presence of others when two or more people encounter each other. TR is the response to TS by another person.
Ego States
In his encounters with his clients, Dr. Berne understood that there exist three distinct states in all people. People change from one state to another in the course of their transactions. This change can be easily noticed by the manners, appearances, words, gestures, and tones.
The three distinct states called the ego states are the Parent ego state, the Adult ego state, and the Child ego state. The Parent ego state is produced by the play-back of recordings in the brain of unquestioned or imposed external events perceived by the person before his social birth i.e., before the age of 5 years. This ego state consists of NO's, DON’T's, HOW -TO's and the facial expressions, tone of voice, manners etc. of the person's parents. In other words, this ego state consists of the "taught - concepts" of life.
The Child ego state is the response the little person produced to what he saw, heard, felt and understood. Most of these are feelings because the child has not developed verbal responses at that time. In other words, this ego state may be considered the collection of "felt-concepts" of life.
 The Parent ego state begins with the biological birth of the individual and extends up to and age of five years. The Child ego state also starts with the physical birth and continues to develop until the social birth (around the age of five).
The Adult ego state develops after both the Parent and the Child ego states have began to develop. This state begins to develop from about ten months of age. The function of this state is to update both Parent data and Child data by continuous examination of these data with respect to actual reality. Thus only those taught concepts and felt-concepts applicable and appropriate to the present are accepted. Thus the Adult state is said to be the "thought-concepts" of life.
 
Fig -1 PAC System

 Berne opines that the recordings in the brain that causes the ego states cannot be erased at all, but "we can choose to turn these recordings off".
Berne represents the ego states as circles and represents TS and TR by arrows drawn from the respective ego state of the first person to that of the second person.

Types of Transactions
Berne identifies two types of transactions:
1. Complementary Transactions
Complementary transactions
Examples of Complementary Transactions
·  Parent-Parent, Adult-Adult, Child-Child, Child-Parent, Parent-Child, Child-Adult, Adult-Child, Adult-Parent, Parent-Adult

First Rule of Communication
We have the first rule of communication in TA :
"When TS and TR on the P-A-C diagram make parallel lines, the transaction can go on indefinitely."

Fig 2. Parent-Parent Transaction
(Complementary Transaction)
2. Crossed Transactions
·  Examples of Crossed Transactions
Adult-Adult and Parent-Child; Adult-Adult and Child-Parent; Parent-Child and Parent-Child; Child-Parent and Child-Parent
Second Rule of Communication
Here we have the second rule of communication in TA:
"When TS and TR in the P-A-C diagram cross each other, communication stops."

Fig.3 Parent-Child and Child-Parent
(Crossed Transaction)

Duplex Transaction
There can be implied communications along with the primary communications. Eg., "Where did you hide the can-opener?" Here the main stimulus is Adult-Adult. But the word hide has an implied stimulus elicited from the Parent of the communicator to the Child of the receiver. This type of communication is called duplex transaction. The duplex transaction (the implied TS or TR) in the transactional diagram is represented by broken arrows.

Fig.4 Adult-Adult with Parent-Child and Child-Parent
(Duplex Transaction)

Personality and Psychopathology According to P-A-C system
There are two ways in which people differ according to TA. This is either due to contamination or exclusion.
In contamination, the P-A-C system overlaps. For example, when Parent and Adult overlap, we have a Parent contaminated Adult. This results in Prejudice. When Adult and Child overlap, we have a Child contaminated Adult. This condition causes delusion.

Fig.5 Contaminated Adult
(Prejudice and Delusion)

In exclusion, the communication from one of the P, A, or C is cut off. For example, when Child is cut off, the person cannot play at all and is very rigid and serious, causing neurotic behavior. When the Parent is cut off, the person does not have any conscience at all. If his Adult is also contaminated with Child, the person will be psychopathic.

Fig.6. PAC system with Child cut-off

 According to this system, psychosis results when the Adult is completely blocked from Parent and Child. This is called decommissioned Adult. If the blocking out of Adult is periodic, the result is Manic-Depressive personality.

Fig.7. The Decommissioned Adult
( Psychosis)